• New article from the Springfield Shopper: Season 32 News: A new episode title, “Do PizzaBots Dream Of Electric Guitars?”, has been revealed!
  • New article from the Springfield Shopper: Old episodes of ‘The Simpsons’ are now available in 4:3 on Disney+!
  • New article from the Springfield Shopper: Season 32 News: New information on multiple episodes have been revealed
  • Wikisimpsons has a Discord server! Click here for your invite! Join to talk about the wiki, Simpsons and Tapped Out news, or just to talk to other users.
  • Make an account! It's easy, free, and your work on the wiki can be attributed to you.
  • Welcome to Wikisimpsons!
TwitterFacebookDiscord

Springfield

Wikisimpsons - The Simpsons Wiki
This article is about the town. For the state capital, see Springfield, Illinois.
Springfield
Springfield.png
Springfield from above.png
Town/City Information
Country: USA
State/Province: Unknown
County: Springfield County[1]
Founder: Jebediah Springfield
Founded: c. 1649 (as Sprungfield), c. 1796 (as Springfield)
Incorporated: 1796
City motto: "A noble spirit embiggens the smallest man"
Mayor: Joe Quimby (D)
Area: 2,088,723 km (West Springfield is three times the size of Texas)[2]
Elevation: 1,582 ft (482 m)[3]
Population: 50,720[3]
Area code: 939 and 636[4]


Springfield's the city where the Simpson family lives. It's located near Shelbyville, Capital City, Ogdenville, and North Haverbrook in a state whose name is never mentioned. The evidence is sufficiently contradictory, it can't be identified with a specific state. Its population's estimated to be about 30,720 and is known as a twin city to Shelbyville. The town's often dubbed as, or at a stretch, one of, the worst towns in America, and, according to Marge, it's "America's Crud Bucket", as well as being the "World's Fattest Town".

One story is it was founded in 1796 by Jebediah Springfield, a.k.a. Hans Sprungfeld, and a band of fiercely determined pioneers from Maryland who set off after misinterpreting a passage in the Bible. Springfield seems to be a small city rather than a megalopolis.[5] Another story is it was founded in 1821 by Springfield leading a band of 34 Dutch settlers in search of a nice place to live.[6] When Jebediah died, he split Springfield between his two sons, Obadiah and Zechariah Springfield. The city was later rejoined, but never officially. When Lisa Simpson discovered the rejoining wasn't official, the town was split into two parts again, but it was later rejoined again.[7]

Its features include one nuclear power plant, two elementary schools, a minor league all-star baseball stadium, an airport, a harbor, a downtown district, a large tire yard (burning since 1966), a ghetto, a Russian district, a Little Italy, several specialized shopping districts, Moe's Tavern, Barney's Bowl-A-Rama, and a Chinatown.

Springfield's nearest neighboring town is Shelbyville. There's a strong rivalry between the towns, dating back to a rivalry between their founders— Jebediah Springfield and Shelbyville Manhattan. Manhattan wanted to found a city where men were free to marry their cousins, but Springfield refused to allow it, so Shelbyville was founded as a rival town.[8] The story of the dispute between Jebediah Springfield and Shelbyville Manhattan contains faint references to the historical stories of the deal between Asa Lovejoy and William Overton to file a land claim, and the dispute between Lovejoy and Francis W. Pettygrove over the name of Portland, Oregon. It's an ever growing city, despite all of the disasters which happen.

History[edit]

The Statue of Jebediah Springfield

Springfield originally existed in 1649 as Sprungfield, founder and foundation period unknown.

In its early days, the city was the target of many Native American raids, and, to this day, many forts and trading posts remain (including Fort Springfield and Fort Sensible). It was also the site of two battles during the American Civil War. After the city was founded, should the population determine what the town will be called, there was a tie between Maudville and Blister City. In Jebediah Springfield's first official act as mayor, he broke the tie and named the town Springfield in honor of his father.[6]

The official founder of Springfield was pioneer Jebediah Springfield, widely celebrated in the town as a brave, proud American hero. He famously killed a bear with his bare hands, and this deed's immortalized in a bronze statue in front of City Hall. However, revisionist historians since determined the bear, in fact, probably killed Springfield, and not vice-versa. The town motto "a noble spirit embiggens the smallest man" is attributed to Jebediah. Lisa Simpson later discovered Jebediah Springfield was in fact Hans Sprungfeld, a murderous pirate and enemy of George Washington, but eventually decided the myth of Springfield should be preserved for the inspiration it gives to people and didn't reveal her findings.[5] One story of Jebediah Springfield was, as Hans Sprungfeld, he was in a grog house fight, and someone bit off his tongue, so he needed to have a prosthetic tongue. A silver tongue, actually.

During the early 1900s, Springfield started a holiday named "Whacking Day" with the intention of beating up Irish immigrants in Springfield, and it eventually transformed into an event where Springfield's denizens beat several snakes to death. In the mid-20th century, the city reached perhaps the pinnacle of its success when it became the home of the Aquacar, a car which can be driven in water like a boat. At this point, the city's streets were literally paved with gold. But unfortunately, the economy collapsed when it was discovered the Aquacar was prone to spontaneous explosion after 600 miles and/or knots.[9] The town never really recovered from this tragedy (the gold was reportedly shipped to the Sultan of Brunei to encase one of his many elephant herds), but some heavy industry remains in the town, including factories for Ah, Fudge! chocolate, fireworks, candy, children's cartoons, toys, spirographs, crackers, peanuts, fake vomit, pillows, apple cider, boxes, and a steel mill.

During Homer Simpson's tenure as Springfield's Sanitation Commissioner, the whole town was relocated "five miles down the road" and reformed because the previous location became flooded with garbage and waste due to Homer's allowing other cities to dump their garbage into the mines running under the town. Mysteriously, the move was only mentioned once: when Lisa remarked with surprise they even allowed the casino to come with them when they moved the town while watching its demolition.[10] The town was later moved again, to "The Outlands".[11]

Springfield was nearly chosen as the host for the Summer Olympic Games, but Bart Simpson's antics angered representatives from the IOC.[12] It was also nearly awarded an NFL franchise team, The Springfield Meltdowns, but Abraham Simpson attacked the commissioner - mistaking him for a burglar - while he was trying to use the Simpsons' phone.

Bart accidentally mooned the U.S. flag, and the Simpsons appeared on a talk show to explain the matter. However, the show's host made it appear Springfield hates America. When the rest of the U.S. reciprocated this loathing, Mayor Quimby changed the name of Springfield to "Liberty-Ville". An enormous patriotic craze ensued, where all items were priced at $17.76, even houses.[13]

The town split at least twice. Once based on area code changes, into New Springfield and Olde Springfield (Not to be confused with the historical site/tourist center of the same name).

At one point in the town's history, gambling was legalized due to an economic slump. To attract more people into the town, Springfield legalized gay marriage. The majority of the populace is also quite horrible at paying tax returns, with the majority of the population waiting until the last possible day to file their tax returns, as evidenced by the huge amount of lines at the Post Office on Tax Day, with some even mistaking it for a Metallica concert line, some hiring accountants just as bad as themselves in regards to paying taxes on time, and some even falsifying many of their actual expenditures while undergoing a last minute rundown on tax returns, misshaping the envelope containing the tax returns, and eventually being arrested by the FBI/IRS for severe audits.[14] Mayor Quimby apparently allows Montgomery Burns so much legal freedom because he's the town's sole taxpayer.[15]

Trappuccino[edit]

Lisa Simpson and Colin spearheaded an effort to clean the heavily polluted Lake Springfield. After a town-wide cleanup, the lake was polluted again single handily by Homer Simpson, who dumped a large silo of "pig crap" into the lake, polluting it to unsurpassed levels. To keep the pollution from spreading to other towns, Russ Cargill, head of the EPA, convinced President Arnold Schwarzenegger to seal Springfield inside a gigantic dome (built by a company owned by Cargill).

During that time, the town fell into ruin and was plagued by power shortages (Mr. Burns refused to give free power) and lack of supplies. The town was trapped under the dome for more than ninety-three days. The dome was later destroyed by Homer and Bart Simpson, and the town was repaired and rebuilt.

Later history[edit]

Springfield eventually fell into a massive economic crisis which resulted in several large cutbacks, as well as forcing several of the citizens to move to Detroit to find better job opportunities.

Geography and climate[edit]

Springfield.jpg

Geography[edit]

Springfield's geography includes big mountains which may be part of the Rocky Mountains, a lot of hills, gorges, giant redwood trees, a desert, a forest, lakes, rivers, and a volcano. It's located on the coast of a large body of water, possibly an ocean. It's also stated "West Springfield" is 3 times the size of Texas, and looks exactly like Texas in shape (although, in theory, this may be referring to a nearby town of Texas, like the non-fictional Texas, New Jersey or Texas, Wisconsin).

Major geographic features include Springfield Gorge, Springfield National Forest, Mt. Springfield, Springfield Harbor, the Springfield Badlands, The Murderhorn, Springfield Glacier, Widow's Peak, and Mt. Carlmore.

Cityscape[edit]

The city's divided into a number of districts, including Skid Row, the Lower East Side (a Jewish neighborhood), Springfield Heights, Bum Town, East Springfield, Recluse Ranch Estates, Junkieville, Pressboard Estates, Springfield Squidport, Little Newark, Crackton, a Russian district, West Springfield, Tibet Town, Waverly Hills, Little Italy, and a gay district.

For a brief period, Springfield divided itself into two cities, Olde Springfield and New Springfield, on the basis of an area code division. Wealthy Olde Springfield, with Mayor Quimby, anchorman Kent Brockman, and bullies, like Nelson Muntz, was separated from the rest of Springfield by a wall erected by poor New Springfield. Mayor Quimby maintained control of Olde Springfield while Homer Simpson ran New Springfield. The cities were later re-united through a concert by The Who.

Main Street's in a pitiful state of disrepair, owing to citizens driving along it while carrying excessively heavy weights and leaving snow chains on their tires after the snow melts. Some of the potholes became so wide, entire cars and trucks can (and did) fall into them.[16]

Towns near Springfield include North Haverbrook, Shelbyville, Ogdenville, Brockway, Guidopolis, and Cranford.

Climate[edit]

Springfield's located in an area receiving rain and snow. Most of the time, the skies are blue and mostly sunny.

Springfield's also subject to a number of natural disasters, including avalanches, earthquakes, acid rain, floods, hurricanes, lightning strikes, tornadoes, and volcanic eruptions.

Pollution[edit]

Visitors from elsewhere are advised to constantly wear radiation suits and carry Geiger counters, since the city's perhaps the most radioactive in the U.S. This is because the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant was built during an incredibly lax period for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission where the plant's nuclear core was surrounded not by several layers of protective concrete and graphite, but ordinary plaster with a horseshoe hanging from a nail. Management gives employees benefits for storing nuclear waste in buildings; in some episodes, barrels of waste were seen in the Simpsons' basement. Perhaps due to this, the book reports international law forbids shipping produce from Springfield; those who do venture into a local super- or farmer's market may find it gives off a barely audible hum. Springfield's "proudly" home to the state's largest tire fire, burning for approximately 42 years, which does nothing to improve the air quality.

Springfieldians have a very uncaring attitude towards the environment. The Springfield Shopper's proud of the fact they use absolutely no recycled material in their paper. Even the mention of the word can cause one of the town residents to pass out from boredom, or, at least, slam the door in the face of plucky little girls concerned about the state of their town without a second thought, or even throw anything they can get their hands on at the Green Day raft just for saying they wanted to talk about it. In fact, the only time they even seem to care is literally when they drink it.

There are also instances of accidental pollution, like when Captain Horatio McCallister once crashed an oil tanker around the Springfield coast in a drunken stupor. McCallister, while still drunk, seemed to think there was no way out of the predicament until he suggested to a newscaster to take the blame for him in the middle of a live broadcast.

People and culture[edit]

The geographic location of Springfield's never stated, but Springfield's generally considered to depict, in a lampooning manner, "bread-and-butter" Middle America, culturally somewhere between a suburb and a small town. Springfieldians aren't, for the most part, cosmopolitan, and most are lower-middle to middle income.

The "small-town nastiness" of Springfield is made evident by a benighted tradition of "snake-whacking" where, annually, Springfieldians bludgeon snakes to death. Lisa Simpson, disgusted by this activity, encourages the people of Springfield to quit the tradition, with the aid of soul singer Barry White.

Springfieldians have a very bad reputation. As described by Dr. Hibbert, it's a town where the smartest have no power, and the stupidest run everything. A fairly accurate statement considering the offices of police chief and mayor are run by clearly incompetent, corrupt individuals. Those few competent in official positions are soon replaced by other incompetent people, like former trash commissioner Ray Patterson being kicked out of office and replaced by Homer Simpson. TIME magazine once did a cover story on Springfield, entitled "America's Worst City," and Newsweek referred to the city as "America's Crud Bucket". The town actually has a billboard, saying it's the "Meanest Town in America." Most citizens are very stupid, overweight, and quick to anger, though, it should be noted Shelbyville residents are even stupider and more backwards. There's a riot almost every month. Springfield also has a strange smell uncomfortable to new residents. It's usually about six weeks before they adjust. Springfield's the first United States city to abandon the Metric system.

It's noted by the Duff Book of World Records as the World's Fattest Town[17] which they're quite proud of.

Demographics[edit]

Springfield's home to people of many races, cultures, and creeds, including European-Americans (the Simpson, Flanders, and Van Houten families); African-Americans (the Hibbert family and Carl Carlson); Latinos (Bumblebee Man); South Asians (Apu and his family "Two Guys From Kabul"); and East Asians (Cookie Kwan and Akira Kurosawa).

There's a large gap between wealthy citizens (like Krusty the Clown and Mr. Burns), and poor citizens (Nelson Muntz and Cletus the Slack-Jawed Yokel).

Crime[edit]

There are a surprising number of prisons in Springfield, including Springfield Penitentiary, Springwood Minimum Security Prison, Springfield Women's Prison, Springfield Juvenile Correctional Facility, Morningwood Penitentiary, and Montgomery Burns State Penitentiary. Springfield Elementary School was even once semi-converted into a prison. The Springfield Police Department, led by Police Chief Clancy Wiggum, is a largely corrupt, incompetent organization. According to Wiggum, they only have enough manpower to enforce the last three laws passed. Another time, Lou pointed out he, Wiggum, and Eddie were the entire police force. There was also a time in the town's history where the police duties were handed over from the Springfield Police Department to a private security company called SpringShield, run by Homer with the help of his friends, Lenny and Carl, who did a far better job. Most organized crime in town is controlled by mob boss Fat Tony, however, the Yakuza are present in smaller numbers.

Arts and entertainment[edit]

The Aztec Theater

Springfield boasts an opera house, an outdoor amphitheater, an arboretum, a vibrant jazz scene, and was mentioned as the entertainment capital of its state. There's also an unusually high number of museums, including Springfield Natural History Museum (featuring the world's largest cubic zirconia), Springfield Knowledgeum, Springsonian Museum, Springfield Wax Museum, Springfield Palace of Fine Arts, the Museum of Swordfish and a stamp museum. Springfield once had a concert hall, but it was closed down, after the first two measures of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony and turned into the Montgomery Burns State Penitentiary. Springfield has two movie theatres: the Aztec Theater and the Springfield Googolplex Theatres. It also has a drive-in theater and a dinner theater.

Media[edit]

The city paper is The Springfield Shopper, and the most popular TV station is KBBL-TV (Channel 6), with Kent Brockman, Scott Christian, and Arnie Pie on the news, Krusty the Clown and Sideshow Mel doing the Krusty the Clown Show, and Bill and Marty on the radio. Alternatively, Channel Ocho's a Spanish language/Latino channel, featuring Bumblebee Man.

Religion[edit]

The first church of Springfield.

Religion and faith play a large role in Springfieldian society. The largest church community appears to be the First Church of Springfield, a Presbylutheran church headed by Reverend Timothy Lovejoy, Jr.. There's also a synagogue (led by Rabbi Hyman Krustofsky), a mosque, a Catholic church (The Notre Dame of Springfield), an Episcopal church (with vibrating pews), a crystal cathedral, the Cathedral of the Downtown, and a Buddhist temple. Apu, a Hindu, has a statue of the god Ganesh in the Kwik-E-Mart.

Once, many Springfieldians joined a cult known as Movementarianism, but soon left, after it was revealed a fraud.[18] According to Reverend Lovejoy, there's also an alliance of people who split off from the Presbyterians to worship an Inanimate Carbon Rod.[9] Lenny Leonard, Carl Carlson, and Lisa Simpson are practicing Buddhists. There's also a Stonecutters Lodge, (currently re-named as "The Ancient Society of No-Homers"), practically every male in the city (minus Homer Simpson) is a member of.

The town government's secular. In 1963, a law was passed which banned praying on city property. Another episode featured a convict imprisoned for erecting a nativity scene on city property. Superintendent Chalmers fired new principal Ned Flanders when he overhears him saying "thank the Lord" over the PA system.[19]

Sports[edit]

There are a number of sports teams and arenas: the Springfield Isotopes, a baseball team (which once threatened to move to Albuquerque, New Mexico); the Springfield Speedway, a monster truck rally (featuring Truckasaurus); the Springfield Atoms football team; the Springfield Stun arena football team; the Springfield Ice-O-topes hockey team; the Association of Springfield Semi-Pro Boxers; and a dog track. It used to have a bull fighting ring. There was once the Mr. Burns Basketball Stadium, neglected and subsequently converted into a colossal bee hive. The Springfield curling team managed to get to the Vancouver Winter Olympics and win gold.

Districts[edit]

Pressboard Estates[edit]

Pressboard Estates is the neighborhood Evergreen Terrace is located in.

Evergreen Terrace[edit]
The Evergreen Terrace Kwik-E-Mart.

Evergreen Terrace is the main district in the Simpsons. It's where many of the families live. The Simpsons live on 742 Evergreen Terrace and is home to the Kwik-E-Mart.

West Springfield[edit]

West Springfield's apparently three times the size of Texas. It's mostly barren, save for some farmland and oil rigs. Homer Simpson and Lenny Leonard got an oil rig job here.

Recluse Ranch Estates[edit]

Recluse Ranch Estates is a rich, upper-class district of Springfield.

Little Italy[edit]

Little Italy is the Italian district of Springfield.

Waverly Hills[edit]

Waverly Hills is another rich, upper-class district of Springfield with the best schools.

Suburbs of Springfield[edit]

Bart and Homer look over Springfield after the events of Trappuccino.

Economy[edit]

The Springfield Nuclear Power Plant Springfield's main employer

Springfield's economy, although at one time "on the GROW!" and rich to the point the streets were literally paved with gold, is now floundering. Some heavy industry remains in the town, including factories for Ah! Fudge chocolate, Southern Cracker, fireworks, candy, boxes, and a steel mill. Many Springfieldians are employed by the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant.

Major industries include nuclear power, heavy manufacturing, Duff Beer, and retail. Many of Springfield's stores are located in the Springfield Mall.

Springfield tried to improve their economy by legalizing gay marriage and gambling.

At one point, Springfield's economy hit an all time low and was suggested to be even worse than Detroit's economic failure, resulting in the halting of roadkill pickups, significantly reducing the amount of school time, releasing low level criminals, and said criminals allowed to commit low-level crimes due to the police lacking the resources and funding to enforce them.[20]

Anthem[edit]

Main article: Springfield Anthem

Infrastructure[edit]

Government[edit]

Mayor Joe Quimby

The current mayor of Springfield is Joe Quimby, a sleazy womanizing politician who served at least five consecutive terms as mayor unopposed. He once admitted to using the town treasury to fund the murder of his enemies. He was briefly thrown out in favor of Sideshow Bob, but was later re-instated when Bob was impeached for electoral fraud. His post was threatened by a recall election, but none of the new candidates gained enough of the vote to oust him, since the most voted for lead candidate was disqualified from the election.

When the mayor briefly skipped town due to missing lottery funds, the town's MENSA chapter (Lisa Simpson, Dr. Hibbert, Lindsey Naegle, Comic Book Guy, and Prof. Frink) technocracy took over. They changed clocks to metric time, eliminated the green lights from stoplights, and put the city on the top 300 US cities. It was 299th, above East Saint Louis, Illinois.[21]

In the United States House of Representatives, Springfield was represented by Congressman Bob Arnold, later expelled for taking bribes. Horace Wilcox is stated to have been congressman since 1933.[22] After Wilcox's death, Krusty the Clown ran for Congress as a Republican and won. He's still seen as a representative.[23]

Laws, statutes, and propositions[edit]

Gambling's legal in Springfield, as is gay marriage,[24] trade in children, and fishing with dynamite. For a brief time, prohibition was brought back ("spirituous beverages are hereby prohibited in Springfield under penalty of catapult").[25] An unusual law from 200 years prior dictates all ducks must wear long pants.

As is with many other towns, there are a number of unusual, outdated statutes in Springfield and its town charter, including "the chief constable shall receive one pig every month and two comely lasses of virtue true"; "it is illegal to mail threatening letters and to put squirrels down your pants for the purposes of gambling"; and "five kicks of the same can shall be considered illegally transporting litter."[26] The town charter stated Springfield's mayor, after election, can't be removed from office... except by a recall election.

Proposition 24, which will deport all illegal immigrants from Springfield, passed with 95% of the public's support,[27] but was overruled at some point. Marge and her family successfully lobbied to get Proposition 242, a "Families Come First" grassroots voter initiative, passed.

Health and education[edit]

Springfield Elementary School

There are quite a number of public and private schools in Springfield, including two elementary schools (Springfield Elementary School and East Springfield Elementary School); a junior high school; a high school; and The Enriched Learning Center for Gifted Children. There are also a number of colleges, including Springfield A&M, Krusty's Clown College,[28] the University of Springfield, and the unfortunately named Springfield Heights Institute of Technology. A full list of education institutions in Springfield can be found here.

Springfield has many museums, like the Springfield Museum of Natural History and the Springfield Knowledgeum. It has a library and an observatory.

Springfield has at least one dog obedience school.

Springfield's known to have at least two hospitals- Springfield General Hospital and the rarely seen Springfield Veteran's Hospital, described to be the worst of the two hospitals.[29]

Transportation[edit]

Several highways run through Springfield, including the Michael Jackson Expressway (Interstate Route 401, formerly the Dalai Lama Expressway),[30] the uncompleted Matlock Expressway,[31] Interstate 95, Route 202, Route 88 (going through Nelson Muntz's neighborhood), and Rural Route 9. There's also a railroad, and an abandoned aqueduct. A Springfield Monorail existed for a very brief time, before it was shut down after a disastrous maiden voyage.[16] It has a street called Main Street, which used to have a lot of potholes.[16]

The city bus service provides public transit on the Route 22 bus Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays; and the 22A bus Tuesdays and Thursdays.

Springfield International Airport

Springfield International Airport is the airport serving Springfield. It has scheduled flights around the US and several other countries, including France, Israel, China, the United Kingdom, and Brazil.

There was once a subway line in Springfield, but it's currently abandoned, most likely because the moving train was capable of causing ground tremors above.[32] A cable-car line was seen in a couple occasions.

Springfield's State[edit]

Main article: Springfield's State

Non-canon[edit]

Donut Homer.png The contents of this article or section are considered to be non-canon and therefore may not have actually happened or existed.

Springfield's an explorable area in many video games based on The Simpsons, with each game featuring a different layout.

The Simpsons Road Rage[edit]

In The Simpsons Road Rage Springfield's split into six different regions: Evergreen Terrace, Entertainment District, Springfield Dam, Nuclear Power Plant, Downtown and Springfield Mountains. The map used in the game's HUD shows how all of the regions are connected.

The Simpsons: Hit and Run[edit]

In The Simpsons: Hit and Run Springfield'ss split into three regions, however, it isn't shown where they're located in relation to each other. The first region, used in levels one, four, and seven, is the residential district with other major establishments, like the Elementary School and the Nuclear Power Plant. The second region, used in levels two and five, is Downtown, which includes locations like Moe's Tavern and the town Hall. The third region, used in levels three and six, is located near the ocean. It includes areas, like the Springfield Squidport and the Springfield Dam.

HUD maps[edit]

Behind the laughter[edit]

There's much speculation about where Springfield is. It was eventually revealed by Matt Groening in 2012 Springfield was named after Springfield, Oregon.[33]

Sister cities[edit]

Kabul, Afghanistan used to be Springfield's sister city, until a disaster at a Roofi concert caused Kabul to end the affiliation.[34] Springograd was also a sister city of Springfield in the Soviet-era until it disappeared from the map.[35]

Appearances[edit]

Incomplete.png This article or section is incomplete.


Please improve the article, or discuss the issue on the talk page.

Springfield appears in every single piece of The Simpsons work, except possibly the advertisement Butterfinger on a Stick, and possibly some of the shorts.

References[edit]


See also[edit]

External links[edit]